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翻译中词的转换

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由于英汉两种语言在语法和表达方式等方面存在着许多差异,因此英译汉时常常有必要改变表达方式,使译文通顺流畅、地道可读。这种变通技巧就是转换法(shift of perspective)。转换的形式多种多样,大体可分为7种:①词类转换,②句子成分转换,③表达方式转换,④自然语序与倒装语序转换;⑤正面表达与反面表达转换,⑥主动式与被动式转换,⑦分句转换。
一、词类转换
词类转换是指英语中的某一词类译成汉语时转换成另一词类。
(一) 英语名词、介词、形容词或副词转换为汉语动词
(1) The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. 因此,对于一个从事社会活动的人来讲,培养一种爱好和新的情趣方式,乃是至关重要的对策。
(2) The Red Army Men marched on bravely against the piercing wind. 红军冒着刺骨的寒风英勇前进。
(3) All were unconscious that this experience was a test of character; and, when the first excitement was over, felt that they had done well, and deserved praise. 大家都没有认识到这番经验却是一次个性的考验,最初的兴奋过去以后,又觉得自己已经干得不错了,理应受到赞扬。
(4) He appeared at her side, breathing audibly, a moment after she reached the stop. She gazed ahead, rigid. 她到车站不一会儿,他便出现在她的身旁,听见他喘息的声音。她凝视着前方,表情严峻。
(5) Yet to both classes the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential. 然而,对所有这两种类型的人来说,变换一下看法、改变一下环境和转换一下注意力都是最基本的需要。
(6) …and it was on the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, that she received the news of her father's death and her own accession to the throne. ……就在此行的第一站肯尼亚,她接到了父亲去世并由她本人继承王位的消息。
(二) 英语动词、副词转换为汉语名词、形容词
(1) The inflammation is characterized by red, swelling, fever, and pain. 炎症的特点是红、肿、热、痛。
(2) The visiting guests were escorted to the Yellow Crane Tower last Sunday. 上星期天,来访的客人和陪同人员一起参观了黄鹤楼。
(3) Our government shows great concern for the Chinese residents abroad. 我国政府十分关心海外华侨。
(4) Formality has always characterized their relationship. 他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼相待。
(5) Most US spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth's atmosphere after completing their missions. 美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后,在大气层中焚毁。
(三) 英语名词转换为汉语形容词、副词
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